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NON-VIABLE AIR SAMPLING RESULTS: Listed below are the results of the interior air sampling performed during our assessment. At least one sample was performed outside at the time of testing, which is used as a background control for comparison purposes. All interior sample results are compared to the background control. If any interior sample results are found to be elevated, recommendations will be provided in this report.
NON-VIABLE AIR SAMPLING CONCLUSION:
As noted in the chart above, during our assessment non-viable air samples were taken in various locations Coaches Office, Cage, Taping Room and one sample was taken outside as a background control for comparison purposes. All or most interior samples were found to have elevated levels of Stachybotrys and Aspergillus/Penicillium-like mold spores in comparison to the exterior sample. Interior air sampling was limited to portions of the Lower floor of the Field House. See the enclosed laboratory report and informational pages which describe these molds.
TAPE LIFT SAMPLING RESULTS: During our assessment, three Tape Lift sample were taken of apparent visible mold growth at various locations. Refer to the chart shown below.
Sample # Sample Location Results
1 North Coaches Office Elevated Stachybotrys & Aspergillus/Penicillium-like
2 South Coaches Office Elevated Stachybotrys
3 Cage Area Highly Elevated Stachybotrys & Aspergillus/Penicillium-like
4 Taping Room Highly Elevated Stachybotrys & Aspergillus/Penicillium-like
5 Equipment Storage Elevated Stachybotrys
Sample # Sample Location Results
1 Coaches Office east drywall at northeast corner Stachybotrys & Aspergillus/Penicillium-like
2 East wall drywall in Cage Stachybotrys
3 JV Locker Room Bathroom, North drywall at base of wall Ascospores
From page 28-30 of the report:
About Aspergillus/Penicillium-like mold spores:
Aspergillus is a common type I & III allergen. They are frequently isolated from forest
products, soils, grains, nuts, cotton, organic debris, and water damaged building
materials. Spores can also be found in moist ventilation systems and house dust. There
are more than 160 different species of Aspergillus, sixteen of which have been
documented as etiological agents of human disease but rarely occur in individuals with
normally functioning immune systems. However, due to the substantial increase in
populations of individuals with HIV, chemotherapy patients and those on corticosteroid
treatment, contamination of building substrates with fungi, particularly Aspergillus is of
concern. Aspergillosis is now the second most common fungal infection requiring
hospitalization in the United States. Many Aspergillus species produce mycotoxins that
may be associated with diseases in humans and other animals. Toxin production is
dependent on the species or strain within the species and on the food source for the
fungus. Some of these toxins are carcinogenic including aflatoxins and ochratoxin.
Aspergillus is a common cause of extrinsic asthma with symptoms including edema and
bronchiospasms, and chronic cases may develop pulmonary emphysema. These fungi are
frequently secondary opportunistic pathogens in patients with bronchiectasis, carcinoma,
other mycosis, sarcoid, and tuberculosis.
A large number of organisms belong to this genus, and identification to species is
difficult. Often found in aerosol samples, it is common in soil, food, cellulose, paint,
grains, and compost piles. In the indoor environment it is in carpet, wallpaper, and in
interior fiberglass duct insulation. Although this fungus causes fewer allergies than other
molds, Penicillium is reported to be a type I & III allergen. It may cause hypersensitivity
pneumonitis and allergic alveolitis in susceptible individuals. It can cause other
infections such as keratitis, penicilliosis, and otomycosis. Some species can produce
mycotoxins including Ochratoxin, which is damaging to the kidneys and liver and is also
a suspected carcinogen; there is also evidence that impairs the immune system. It also
produces Citrinin that can cause renal damage, vasodilatation, and bronchial constriction
and Gliotoxin, which is immunosuppressive. Patulin is another of its mycotoxins that is
believed to cause hemorrhaging in the brain and lungs and is usually associated with
apple and grape spoilage. It can also cause extrinsic asthma. P. marneffei is the major
pathogenic species causing infections of the lymphatic system, lungs, liver, skin, spleen,
Ascospores are a general category of spores that have been produced by means of sexual
reproduction (in a sack-like structure called an ascus). These are ubiquitous saprobes and
plant pathogens, many of which are easily identifiable (i.e. Chaetomium). This group
contains potential opportunistic pathogens, toxin producers, and allergens depending on
the genus and species. A rupture in the top portion of the ascus disperses the spores
during rain or in times of high humidity. Some asexual fungi, such as Aspergillus and
Penicillium can become sexual under specific conditions; these are then considered
ascomycetes and are given distinct names.
About Stachybotrys mold spores:
Stachybotrys is commonly found in sub-tropical to tropical areas in soil and decaying
plant materials, and is considered a type I & III allergen. Considerable recent media
attention has been focused on the fungi Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) due to infant
deaths in Cleveland from pulmonary hemosiderosis, which may be associated with
contamination of residences with this fungus. Stachybotrys thrives on water damaged
cellulose rich materials such as sheet rock, paper, ceiling tiles, cellulose containing
insulation backing and wallpaper. The presence of this fungus in buildings is significant
because of the mold’s ability to produce mycotoxins, such as Satratoxin H, Trichoverrol,
and Cyclosporins that possess cytotoxic, immunological, carcinogenic effects. Exposure
to these toxins can occur through inhalation, ingestion or dermal exposure. Symptoms
include dermatitis, cough, rhinitis, nose bleeds, a burning sensation in the mouth and
nasal passage, cold and flu symptoms, headache, general malaise, and fever. Inhalation of
conidia may also induce pathological changes (pneumomycotoxicoses). Satratoxin H has
been reported to be abortogenic in animals and in high doses or chronic low doses it can
be lethal. S. chartarum (atra) produces other macrocyclic and trichoverroid
trichothecenes and, like Memnoniella echinata, produces phenylspirodrimanes, which are
immunosuppressive. Stachybotrys typically appears as a sooty black fungus occasionally
accompanied by a thick mass of white mycelia. Memnoniella differs from Stachybotrys
by producing conidia in chains. As a general rule, air sampling for Stachybotrys yields
unpredictable results mainly due to the fact that this fungus is usually accompanied by
other fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium that normally are better aerosolized than
Stachybotrys. Bulk or surface sampling of suspect materials can be analyzed in a
laboratory for identification by light microscopy. This fungus is a slow grower on media,
therefore does not compete well with other rapidly growing fungi. Colonies are powdery
in texture, white, pink, orange or black in color.
SMH Note: The Cage is where the equipment is kept for all the sports teams. These students have been using contaminated equipment and occupying a building with toxic molds throughout. Stachybotrys is one of the most toxic molds, with its trichothecene mycotoxins used for biological warfare, they are so potent. Read about this in our article, The Dangers of Trichothecene Mycotoxins.
All of the sports equipment has been contaminated, with close proximity to toxic mold and bacteria, inside the Cage, in this building. At least one of the occupants has experienced a staph infection.
The State Health Dept has not been cooperative, nor has the local health department. The school district certainly has ignored these conditions and covered them up with denials and recently, paint.
Dangerous bacteria, E. coli and Coliform, were also found in this building, on a drain pipe in the equipment Cage, on the SE corner, on the ground floor (p. 21, 22):
Click hereTO SEE BACTERIA SWAB SAMPLING RESULTS (GO TO SUMMARY AT END).
1) We recommend that a qualified licensed abatement contractor be employed to
perform complete mold and bacteria remediation strategies. This work should be
performed throughout the entire building and will likely require an extensive
Remediation Plan and Protocol. This plan should be created by a qualified
2) Due to the elevated levels of airborne mold spores found during non-viable air
sampling and bacteria found during swab sampling, prior to people working in
and/or accessing this area, we recommend that a representative from the local
Health Department evaluate the conditions as described in this report and provide
recommendations as deemed necessary.
3) If any irregular health-related symptoms appear, consult with a physician
4) Reconstruction should not take place until all moisture intrusion issues have been
MRSA information provided by the CDC:
MRSA in Schools Oct. 2007
Answers to commonly asked questions about preventing the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections in schools.
"In what settings do MRSA skin infections occur?
MRSA skin infections can occur anywhere.
Some settings have factors that make it easier for MRSA to be transmitted.
These factors, referred to as the 5 C's, are as follows: Crowding, frequent skin-to-skin Contact, Compromised skin (i.e., cuts or abrasions), Contaminated items and surfaces, and lack of Cleanliness.
Locations where the 5 C's are common include schools, dormitories, military barracks, households, correctional facilities, and daycare centers. "
Questions and Answers about MRSA among Athletes Nov. 2007
Answers to commonly asked questions about preventing the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections among athletes.
How is MRSA spread?
Like other causes of skin infections in athletes, MRSA is usually spread from person to person through direct skin contact or contact with shared items or surfaces (e.g., towels, used bandages, weight-training equipment surface) that have touched a person’s infection.
MRSA might spread more easily among athletes because during participation athletes have repeated skin-to-skin contact, get breaks in the skin such as cuts and abrasions that if left uncovered allow staph and MRSA to enter and cause infection, share items and surfaces that come into direct skin contact, and have difficulty staying clean.
Which athletes are most at-risk for MRSA skin infections?
Skin infections including MRSA have been reported mostly in high-physical-contact sports such as wrestling, football, and rugby. However, MRSA infections have been reported among athletes in other sports such as soccer, basketball, field hockey, volleyball, rowing, martial arts, fencing, and baseball.
Even though little physical contact occurs in some sports during participation, skin contact or activities that may lead to spread of MRSA skin infections may take place before or after participation such as in the locker room. Therefore, anyone participating in organized or recreational sports should be aware of the signs of possible skin infections and follow prevention measures.
MRSA Contacts: CDC
1600 Clifton Rd
Switchboard: (404) 639-3311 /
: 800-CDC-INFO / 888-232-6348
(TTY) Department of Health and Human Services